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UPW contaminants effects and purification technologies for emerging immersion optical lithography

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By Bipin Parekh, Michael Clarke, Annie Xia & Joseph Smith, Entegris, U.S.


Driven by increasing consumer demand, semiconductor manufacturers have increased chip capacity at staggering rates using optical lithography by shrinking the circuit line widths.  To print these finer lines, manufacturers have relied on a progressively smaller wavelength light source, which currently is 193nm laser targeted to the 65nm features. In order to extend the 193nm illumination beyond 65nm, semiconductor manufacturers are gearing up for a transition from dry lithography to a processing technique, Immersion Lithography, using ultra-pure water (UPW). 

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