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Photoresist issues for sub-100nm lithography

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Ralph R. Dammel, Clariant Corporation, New Jersey, USA


The improvements in photoresists required to meet the ITRS roadmap’s goals are discussed for the 100nm node and beyond. The main issues as resist technologies are being introduced at half-wavelength resolution are found to be low DOF, mask error enhancement factors (MEEF), line edge roughness (LER), line collapse at high aspect ratios, particle and defectivity issues, PEB sensitivity requirements, as well as general polymer physics and chemistry limitations, such as issues related to absorbance and dry etch stability. It is found that while some solutions are on the horizon for the nearer nodes of the roadmap, there are currently no concepts to deal with some of the extremely demanding roadmap goals for the out-years.

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